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Attempt to set up RDO Mitaka at any given time (Delorean trunks)

Author: - All Content | Files under syndicated

Per  Delorean Documentation
The RDO project has a continuous integration pipeline that consists of multiple jobs that deploy and test OpenStack as accomplished by different installers. This vast test coverage attempts to ensure that there are no …


Speed up Apache with mod_pagespeed and Memcached on Debian 8

Author: Falko Timme | Files under syndicated

The page load time gets more and more important for websites to provide a better user experience and it is important for the search engine ranking as well. Google has developed the apache module “mod_pagespeed” to optimize and streamline the content de…


42 Best Free Linux Email Software

Author: Steve Emms | Files under syndicated

Email is arguably one of the most popular and useful functions of a Linux system. Fortunately, there is a wide selection of free email software available on the Linux platform which is stable, feature laden, and ideal for personal and business environm…


Check if a machine runs on 64 bit or 32 bit Processor/Linux OS?

Author: Surendra Anne | Files under syndicated

Q. How can I check if my server is running on a 64 bit processor and running 64 bit OS or 32 bit operating system?

Before answering above question we have to understand below points.

We can run a 32-bit Operating system on a 64 bit processor/system.
We can run a 64-bit operating system on a 64 bit processor/system.
We cannot run a 64-bit operating system on a 32-bit processor/system.
We can run a 32-bit operating system on a 32-bit processor/system.

Once we are clear about the above 4 points then we can see if our machine have a 64 bit processor or not.

How to check if my CPU is a 64-bit supported processor or not?

There are two commands to check if it’s a 64 bit processor or not

Option 1 : use lscpu command to check if it supports multiple CPU operation modes(either 16, 32 or 64 bit mode).

as a normal/root user execute below command

lscpu | grep op-mode

Sample output on a 64-bit processor$ lscpu | grep op-mode
CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit

Sample output on a 32-bit processor

[surendra@www ~]$ lscpu | grep op-mode
CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit

If you observe the first output will say that your CPU supports both 32-bit as well as 64 bit operating systems. This indicates that it’s 64-bit processor from our above 4 rules. But in the second machine it say’s only 32-bit CPU mode which indicates its a 32 bit processor.

Option 2: Use proc file system file CPU info to get the processor type.

grep -w lm /proc/cpuinfo

Sample output on a 64-bit processor when searching for lm(long mode) bit is set or not

grep -w lm /proc/cpuinfo
flags : tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni pclmulqdq dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr

Sample output on a 32-bit processor when search for lm(long mode) bit.

grep -w lm /proc/cpuinfo

[surendra@www ~]$ grep lm /proc/cpuinfo

If you don’t get any output that indicates its not a 64 bit processor.

How to check if my Operating system is a 64-bit or 32-bit?

Before knowing about this you should know about i386, i486 etc naming convention.

What is difference between i386, i486, i586, and i686 OS?

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How to install TYPO3 7 with Nginx and MariaDB on Debian 8 (Jessie)

Author: Falko Timme | Files under syndicated

This tutorial shows how to install and configure a TYPO3 (version 7) web site on a Debian 8 (Jessie) server that has Nginx installed as web server and MariaDB as the database server. Typo3 is an enterprise class CMS system written in PHP which has a la…


Installing Nginx with PHP (as PHP-FPM) and MariaDB (LEMP) on Debian 8

Author: Falko Timme | Files under syndicated

This tutorial will show you the installation of the Nginx web server on Debian 8. Nginx (pronounced “engine x”) is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server. Nginx is known for its stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low reso…


How to copy permissions from one file to another on Linux

Author: Vivek Gite | Files under syndicated

I need to copy or clone file ownership and permissions from another file on Linux without copying file itself. Is there a bash command line option to clone the user, group ownership and permissions on a file from another file on Linux operating system?…


How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.5 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

Author: YourOwnLinux | Files under syndicated

The Linux Kernel 4.5 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.5 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint sys…


25+ Awesome Linux/Unix command chaining examples

Author: Surendra Anne | Files under syndicated

Command chaining is a concept to execute two or more commands in one execution to increase.


Reduce system resource usage (In some cases)

Short and sweet codes.

These are supported by almost every shell we know.

Today we will learn how to use different command chaining operators available for us in an easy way.

Command chaining operators

	& --Sends process background (so we can run multiple process parallel)
	; --Run multiple commands in one run, sequentially.
	 --To type larger command in multiple lines
	&& --Logical AND operator
	|| --Logical OR operator
	! -NOT operator ( Thanks for for giving good examples)
	| -- PIPE operator
	{} --Command combination operator.
	() --Precedence operator

& – Runs a command in the background

This operator is useful to send a process/script/command to background, so that we can execute other commands in foreground to increase effective utilization of system resources and to speed up the script execution. This is also called as Child process creation or forking in other programming languages.

Example 1: Run commands in the background

	$ping -c1 &

Example 2: Run more commands in the background in single line $

	ping -c1 & scp root@* /opt &

Above commands are run in the background parallel independent of other commands. Like this, we can run many commands parallel.

; – semicolon operator

This operator Run multiple commands in one go, but in a sequential order. If we take three commands separated by semicolon, second command will run after first command completion, third command will run only after second command execution completes. One point we should know is that to run second command, it do not depend on first command exit status.

Example 3: Execute ls, pwd, whoami commands in one line sequentially one after the other.


Note: The number of commands you can run is infinity as we said earlier. By default there is no limit on how many commands you can run with ; operator. We have checked this with 500 commands executed in one line. The limit depends only on memory or ulimits settings.

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How to use Port Knocking on Ubuntu to hide the SSH port

Author: Falko Timme | Files under syndicated

You all know these old gangster films where a guy uses a knock sequence on a door to get in? Port Knocking is exactly that, just for your server. Installing port knocking on Ubuntu is easy. I will show you in this article how to install and set up port…